We recently reported that aging increases basal expression of many Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in men and lifelong aerobic exercise does not prevent this effect. In addition, a resistance exercise (RE) challenge increased the expression of many TLRs. Here we show that basal TLR expression is minimally influenced by aging in women and findings support the sexual dimorphism of immunity, with women having greater basal skeletal muscle TLR expression and a differential response to unaccustomed exercise than men.
Impact of Climate Change on Health and Performance
Insufficient hydration is prevalent among free living adults. This study found that hypohydration induced by 24-h fluid deprivation engaged renal functional reserve and that oral protein loading did not further increase creatinine clearance. Hypohydration also attenuated the ability to increase renal vascular resistance during the exercise pressor reflex. In addition, hypohydration neither enhanced nor impaired urine-concentrating ability during oral protein loading. These data support the importance of mitigating hypohydration in free living adults.
Cerebral blood velocity (CBv) in the anterior circulation was higher in females compared with males irrespective of maturational stage, but not in the posterior circulation. In response to exercise, females demonstrated a greater CBv compared with males, especially post-peak height velocity (post-PHV) where the CBv response to exercise was more pronounced. Our findings suggest that both CBv at rest and in response to acute submaximal exercise are altered by biological sex in a maturity-dependent manner.
Sex Differences in the Response to Exercise Training
This study demonstrated no sex differences in the oxidative response to moderate- and heavy-intensity cycling exercise. The change in oxygen uptake and deoxyhemoglobin were modeled with monoexponential curve fitting, which revealed no differences in the rate of oxidative energy provision between sexes. This provides insight into previously reported sex differences in the integrative response to exercise.